Scientific collections of the Department of Palaeobotany consist of fossil remains of plant collection and the collection of comparative contemporary plant specimens.

Fossil materials contain tens of thousands of items. These include fruit and seed flora, foliage prints, (sometimes with an intact cuticle), shoots, and wood pellets. Collections are divided chronologically into three sections: flora older than from Paleogene (older than 65 million years), flora from Paleogene and Neogene (65 million years - 2.6 million years ago) and Quaternary flora (2.6 million years ago to the modern period) containing numerous materials Archaeobotanical with archaeological sites.

Comparative collections of modern plants are created regularly since 1954 and they consist of a large collection of fruits and seeds, woods, herbarium of leaves, palynological materials, cuticular specimens and a collection of moss specimens and tissues of other plants occurring of peat bogs. These collections are the only ones of its kind in Poland and one of the few in Europe. They are a valuable tool in the ongoing research.

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