wydał Instytut Botaniki Polskiej Akademii Nauk

ATLAS OF POLLEN AND SPORES OF THE POLISH NEOGENE

Volume 1 - SPORES

Edited by Leon STUCHLIK

Authors: Leon STUCHLIK, Maria ZIEMBIŃSKA-TWORZYDŁO, Aleksandra KOHLMAN-ADAMSKA, Irena GRABOWSKA, Hanna WAŻYŃSKA, Barbara SŁODKOWSKA, Anna SADOWSKA

. SZAFER INSTITUTE OF BOTANY, POLISH ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, Kraków 2001

ISBN: 83-85444-79-3

W. Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, Lubicz 46, PL-31-512 Kraków, Poland 

This volume was prepared and published with the financial support of the State Committee for Scientific Research (Grant No. 6 PO4E 036 12)

(158 p., 41 plates)

Preface

With this volume we are beginning the edition of an Atlas of pollen and spores of the Polish Neogene, which will be published in four volumes: l - spores; 2 - gymnosperms; 3 - angiosperms I and 4 - angiosperms II.

The four volumes will be published between 2001 and 2006 with the approximate dates of publication for volumes l and 2 in 2001; vol. 3 in 2003/4 and vol. 4 in 2005/6.

The main goal of this series is to present a synthesis of palynological studies from the Polish Neogene carried out during the last 50 years. During this time more than 300 pollen floras have been studied. Many of the results have been published in Polish and international scientific periodicals; many others remain in the archives of Polish geological institutions, mainly in the Polish Geological Institute in Warsaw, the Geological Department of Warsaw University, Museum of the Earth, Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw, the Institute of Geological Sciences of Wrocław University, and the Władysław Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences in Kraków. Most of the existing archival materials stored in these institutions have been studied and revised for this synthesis, and many previously unpublished original photographic materials have been used for the purposes of this contribution. Our intention is to give a complete overview of all identified pollen and spore taxa from the Neogene sediments of Poland. We hope, that this contribution will be of a great value for scientists dealing with stratigraphy and palaeobotany of European Neogene, as well as for the students studying palaeobotany, palaeoecology and palaeophytogeography.                                            

LEON STUCHLIK, editor
Kraków, 15 March, 2001

INTRODUCTION

In the palynological literature published between the years 1950 and 1980, the predominant trend in the descriptions of pollen and spores was the morphological method, in which the creation of new genera was based on morphological features of dispersed sporomorphs. Among the propagators of this approach were: Thomson and Pflug (1953), van der Hammen (1956), Krutzsch (1959-1971), Kedves (1961-1978) and several others. In general, this system did not provide much useful Information about the botanical affinity of the taxa described. In the course of time, many palynologists have started to establish another type of descriptive style for new genera, in which the botanical affinity of the palynomorphs is taken into consideration. This idea was proposed, and then consequently carried into effect by Esther Nagy. In her papers from the years 1969 to 1985 she returned to the oldest descriptions of Tertiary palynomorphs made by Thiergart (1937), Raatz (1937) and particularly by Fotonié (1931-1970). Ziembińska-Tworzydło et al. (1994) have followed this idea and created a new rule "wherever it was possible to define the botanical affinity of spores, it is pointed out under the new created names of the fossil genera". Unfortunate-ly in the series "Neogene Pollen flora of Central Europe, part I" (Ziembińska-Tworzydło et al. 1994) in many cases the rules of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN 2000) have not been followed, and several new taxa (mainly genera) have been created invalidly. Thanks to critical discussions with Dr Jan Jansonius (Institute of Sedimentary and Petroleum Geology, Calgary, Canada) further mistakes have been avoided; the authors are thankful for his instructive comments - mainly concerning nomenclatory problems - to the text of our manuscript. We also thank Professor Ryszard Ochyra (W. Szafer Institute of Botany Polish Academy of Sciences) for his instructive nomenclatory suggestions. In the present Atlas most of the subgenera, earlier described as an important feature in the taxonomic classification, have been raised to the rank of genus. Fossil spores from Polish Neogene have not been determined to lower taxonomic units than species, because of the smali intraspecific variability. Most of the subspecies of spores created by Krutzsch (1962a, b, 1963a, b, 1967) have been included in our Atlas within the synonym lists for each species, when the differences between subspecies were only in size and the general shape of spores. In cases where greater morphological differences exist, a subspecies has been raised to the rank of species. This concerns only taxa from Poland illustrated in the present Atlas.

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