wydał Instytut Botaniki Polskiej Akademii Nauk

Atlas of the pollen and spores of the Polish Neogene.
Volume 2 - Gymnosperms.
Edited by Leon STUCHLIK


W. Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków 2002

ISBN: 83-85444-92-0

This volume was prepared and published with the financial support of the State Committee for Scientific Research (Grant No. 6 PO4E 036 12)

(238 p., 82 plates)


The Atlas of Pollen and Spores of the Polish Neogene volume 2 - Gymnosperms contains description of pollen grains of this group determined in the Neogene sediments of Poland. The main principle of this volume is the same as in volume l - Spores (Stuchlik et al. 2001). Approximately 100 taxa belonging to 20 genera have been distinguished. Seven new species and two new genera are described, and the diagnoses of four genera have been emended. Ali of the distinguished genera belong to 8 families of the natural system. Our intention i s to provide a general compendium of gymnospermous pollen following a gap of more than 30 years since the publication of Krutzsch's Atlas (1970, 1971). In this current volume new taxa have been described according to the rules of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN, Greuter et al. 2000), and following the idea that "wherever it was possible to define the botanical af-finity of pollen grains, it is pointed out under the new created name of the fossil genera". Most of the taxa described are at the same taxonomic rank in the pres-ent volume as they were placed by previous authors, except the classification by Krutzsch (1961, 1970) of the genus Ephedripites. Bolkhovitina (1953) created the genus Ephedripites and this was subsequently divided by Krutzsch (1961) with two subgenera: E. (Ephedripites) and E. (Distachyapites). Because of a very clear morphological differentiation of these two subgenera and because of their overall accordance with the pollen types of recent Ephedra, in the present work the subgenus Distachyapites Krutzsch 1961 has been raised to generic rank.

According to the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN 2000 art. 34.2) several alternative names of taxa created mainly by Krutzsch (1971) were not validly published. Our goal was to systematically revise these taxa and to validate their publication.

Detailed studies of the alveolar infrastructure of sacci in podocarpoid pollen grains gave the possibility to distinguish them from pollen grains of the new described genus Cathayapollis. Podocarpoid pollen grains have the alveolar infrastructure of sacci built by open alveolae with torn muri, swollen at the ends, forming a pearl-like structure.

Detailed studies of the attachment axis of sacci in the alatus and microalatus groups of coniferous pollen grains gave the possibility to assign several species of the genera Abietineaepollenites, Piceaepollenites and Pityosporites to the new described genus Cathayapollis.

Some critical revisions and a new outlook on the inaperturate pollen group is proposed in this volume. Detailed studies by the use of SEM provided the possibility to distinguish a new genus Taiwaniapollis, and also permitted more precise morphological description of fossil pollen grains belonging to the genus Cunninghamiaepollenites. Thanks to a rich polliniferous material of Cunninghamiaepollenites in sediments of the Polish Neogene, it has been possible to recognize detailed distinguishing features between the genera Cunninghamiaepollenites, Inaperturopollenites and Cupressacites. Cunninghamiaepollenites differs from the Inaperturopollenites pollen grains by the ectexine loosely connected with the endexine, forming numerous, thick, secondary folds, and from Cupressacites it differs by the presence in the centre of leptoma, an aperture up to 2 |im in diameter.

Detailed SEM studies made it possible to distinguish three types of exine sculpture in Sequoiapollenites pollen grains.

Type l - surface rugulate, rugae 2-3 μm long and 0.1-0.2 μm broad - in Sequoiapollenites rotundus;

Type 2 - surface rugulate-verrucate, rugae 3-4 μm long and 0.3 μm broad, built of fused, densely spaced verrucae, about 1 μm in diameter - in several species;

Type 3 - surface microgemmate, microgranules very densely spaced, single or fused into microgemmae, 0.5-0.7 μm in diameter - in several species.

For making stratigraphic distributions of taxa more understandable a stratigraphic table including all Neogene stages have also been added to this volume. The table contains chronostratigraphic and lithostratigraphic scheme of the Paratethys area (Watycha 1977) and Polish Lowland (Piwocki 1998).