Instytut Botaniki im. W. Szafera Polskiej Akademii Nauk - W. Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences
CONTENTS / SPIS TREŚCI
INTRODUCTIONThe term 'microfungi' is conventionally used to define the group of fungi that grow on plants (or other fungi) without producing proper fruitbod-ies or forming fruitbodies that are very small, almost imperceptible without magnifying equipment (magnifying glass or microscope). It is a fairly numerous, non-homogenous group, comprising fungi belonging to different systematic units. Organisms representing the kingdom of Fungi undoubtedly prevail among them. These are species belonging to phyla Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota, Zygomycota and the group of mitosporic (anamorphic) fungi. The list also includes representatives of the order Peronosporales (phylum Oomycota), which form a well defined and distinguishable group of parasitic organisms, currently included in the kindgom Chromista (HAWKSWORTH et al. 1995) or differentiated as the kingdom Straminipila in most recent systematics (KIRK et al. 2001). For practical reasons, a common name of 'fungi' was used here to designate all organisms included in the work.
Research on the occurrence of microfungi in the Tatra National Park has been conducted for over 100 years and goes back to the end of the 19th century. The first findings are reported in the works by KRUPA (1886, 1888) and RACIBORSKI (1887). More intensive studies started at the beginning of the 20th century, and were continued in the period between the two world wars. The first comprehensive specification was devised by STARMACHOWA (1963). It covered species known on both sides of the Tatras (in Poland and in Slovakia) and contained a list of publications devoted to the research in this area.
Studies in the Tatras were continued by several mycologists over subsequent decades (1970-2003). The results were discussed in two successive synthetic publications concerning the region. The degree of recognition of these organisms in the Kotlina Zakopiańska basin was summarised in the first one (SAŁATA, ROMASZEWSKA-SAŁATA, MUŁENKO 1993), while the records from the Tatra National Park were presented in the second one (SAŁATA, MUŁENKO 1996). Full bibliographical lists are included in both works. Only five publications dealing with microfungi of this region have come out since 1996 (CHLEBICKI 1995, 2002, SCHEUER, CHLEBICKI 1997, STĘPNIEWSKA 1996, MUŁENKO et al. 2003).
Apart from works dealing explicitly with diversity of micromycetes as occurring on aboveground plant organs, some research on pathogenic factors responsible for weakening of lower montane zone forests has been carried out (KRZAN 1987, 1988, 1991, 1996). Fungi growing on roots of tree seedlings and causing wood diseases were isolated and grown in culture. These works concerned mainly spruce (Picea abies), and to a lesser extent beech (Fagus sylvatica), fir (Abies alba), sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) and sorb (Sorbus sp.). In some papers tree species were not mentioned at particular records of fungi. In such cases only a general kind of substrate, which the fungus was isolated from, is given in the column 'Host plant/ Substratum' in our list, instead of specific host plant name. Such records of fungi, where no precise information on host species was provided, were omitted in the index of plant hosts and their fungi. It does not influence, however, the general information on the number of plant species on which fungi were collected (all tree species taken into account in the phytopathological works host also other fungi recorded in the field mycological studies and included in the list).
The present work contains a new, critical revision of fungi recorded in the Tatra National Park so far. The majority of findings are based on papers already published. They are supplemented with unpublished materials deposited at the Mycological Herbarium of the Department of General Botany of the University of Marie Curie-Skłodowska (LBLM), collected by the authors over the last 20 years. The taxonomic layout of the list has been slightly modified in comparison with that given by SAŁATA and MUŁENKO (1996), to comply with the 'Dictionary of Fungi' published in 1995 (HAWKSWORTH et al. 1995). Fungi of the order Sphaeriales were included in the order Xylariales, those of Helotiales within Leotiales, and those of Protomycetales in Taphrinales. Mitosporic fungi were presented in two groups: Hyphomycetes and Coelomycetes. Representatives of Chytridiomycota (order Chytridiales) were included in the group of proper fungi (Fungi). Fungi from orders Mortierellales and Mucorales (Zygomycota) were also included in the present checklist. Names of higher taxonomic units, as well as names of species within them, were listed alphabetically.
The specification comprises 509 species of fungi belonging to 22 orders and 175 genera (Tab. 1). Among groups most numerously represented are: Uredinales (122 species) and mitosporic fungi - Hyphomycetes (93 species) and Coelomycetes (72 species). Representatives of Dothideales (39 species), Ustilaginales (30 species), Peronosporales and Erysiphales (29 species each) also constitute relatively large groups. The present list contains over 145 species more than the tabular specification (SAŁATA, MUŁENKO 1996) published in the monograph 'Nature of the Tatra National Park' edited by Z. MlREK.
This number, although significant, is not exhaustive. Given the number of plants occurring in this area (ca. 1000 species, MIREK, PIĘKOŚ-MIRKOWA 1996), a considerably greater number of fungi, than that shown up until now, should be expected. One of the reasons behind it is the fact, that studies so far have not been conducted in an intense and systematic way and many data come from accidental collections. Consistent studies on micromycetes, supported by in-depth methodological preparations, have not been carried out yet. The problem is typical not only of the Polish part of the Tatras. When a similar list was compiled for the Slovakian Tatras a few years ago (BACIGÁLOVA 1999), it turned out that the number of species recorded was smaller and equalled 420 taxa, while the richness of plants estimated for this part of the massive is even greater (ca. 1500 species). The Tatra National Park still remains a relatively poorly explored area.
Microfungi recorded in the Polish Tatras were collected on above-ground organs of 345 species of vascular plants. They are mostly biotrophic obligate parasites associated with specific plant species or groups of closely related species. Facultative saprobes, which first infect live plant organs and then after plant death develop on their remains, also constitute a fairly numerous group. Facultative parasites are present in a much lesser extent.
Names of the fungi given in the list are presented mainly in accordance to publications by: BRANDENBURGER (1985), CONSTANTINESCU (1991), VÁNKY (1994), BRAUN (1995), SAŁATA (2002), successive volumes of the 'Flora of Poland' (series Mycota), and the monograph by CANNON et al. (1985); other works were used less frequently.
Names of host plants are given according to MIREK et al. (2002). However, as mentioned above, the present list was compiled mostly on the basis of literature data, and herbarium specimens were not revised. Therefore, there are some nomenclature inaccuracies, especially for plant species that were reported in older literature and were not included in the present checklist of plants of Poland. Main doubts are explained in notes given at particular taxa. The same rule has been applied to the taxonomy of fungi. A few species were quoted in the list under traditional names commonly used until present, even though they are currently known to be collective species (s.L), e.g. Plasmopara umbelliferarum (Peronosporales) or Coleosporium tussilaginis (Uredinales).
Adequate region(s) of the Tatra mountains (Western Tatras, High Tatras), where fungi were collected, as well as the altitude above the sea level of stations, are given for the majority of records.
The main list of microfungi has been structured on the basis of main systematic units (kingdom, phylum, order); within orders, cited taxa have been arranged alphabetically. In order to make the use of the checklist easier, three indexes have been prepared to complement the main list. The first one gathers all genera of microfungi with reference to orders where respective taxa are classified to. The name of order automatically indicates the place of a given genus in the main list. This index is followed by an index of all host plants mentioned in the work, with names of microfungi recorded on them. The third index provides a short list of parasitic fungi constituting hosts for other fungi, with fungi recorded on them (so called 'hyper-parasites'); also names of host plants, on which these fungi were recorded in the Park, are mentioned.