Polish Botanical Studies GUIDEBOOK SERIES - No 28 (2005) 

K. WASYLIKOWA i in. (Red.)

Roślinne ślady człowieka

(publikacja w jęz. polskim z ang. abstraktami)

Instytut Botaniki im. W. Szafera PAN, Kraków

PL-ISSN: 1642-5006   PL-ISBN:83-89648-21-0

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WPROWADZENIE - Introduction.

Between the 16th and 18th September 2003, Polish scientists interested in human/plant interactions gathered in the Archaeological Laboratory at Igołomia for the VIth Archaeobotanical Workshop, organized by the Kraków Branch of the Institute of Archaeology and Ethnology of the Polish Academy of Sciences and W. Szafer Institute of Botany of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Kraków. The participants, 51 in number, presented 28 papers and five posters; most of them are now assembled in this volume. The articles deal with the exploitation of plants by humans for various purposes over a period from the Mesolithic to the Early Middle Ages.

Two papers, based on off-site pollen analytical uwestigations, are devoted to the detection of anthropogenic changes in the vegetation during the Mesolithic and Neolithic in north-eastern Poland (A. Wacnik) and the Neolithic in the west-central part of the country (D. Nalepka). Another approach to off-site pollen studies is demonstrated by A. Pelisiak, who correlates human impact recorded in pollen diagrams with the known distribution of the Neolithic settlement in the eastern Polish Carpathians, presenting an analysis of settlement micro-regions in this area. Prehistorie settlement from various periods in the Kotlina Szczercowska region of middle Poland, is described on the basis of integrated archaeological, pollen-analytical and geomorphological studies (Z. Balwierz, P. Marosik, B. Muzolf, P. Papiernik, W. Siciński). The mechanism of tree-trunk deposition in alluvial sediments was the subject of multidisciplinary uwestigations carried out in the Wisła valley. These studies allowed the authors to conclude that oak regeneration in ca. A.D. 400 resulted from destabilization of settlement during the early phase of the Migration Period (H. Dobrzańska, T. Kalicki, M. Lityńska-Zając).

Several papers are concerned with plant macrofossil analyses of special archaeological objects, such as roasters (I. Gluza, E. Kubica-Kabacińska; B. Sz. Szmoniewski, M. Lityńska-Zając) and a cataplasm (poultice) containing fruits of Lithospermum of-ficinale (B. Baczyńska; M. Lityńska-Zając). On-site pollen studies are represented by the analysis of barrows and ramparts (M. Makohonienko) and Early Medieval culture layers (I. Okuniewska-Nowaczyk). A relatively rare line of investigation is followed in two articles concerning the analysis of wood tar preserved in Early Medieval vessels (H. Dobrzańska, J. Langer, S. Pietrzak, B. Sz. Szmoniewski; E. Kubica-Kabacińska, J. Langer, S. Pietrzak, B. Sz. Szmoniewski).

The list of archaeobotanically-studied sites was enriched with the addition of a Lusatian settlement from the Late Bronze Age at Krzanowice (A. Sady) and an Early Medieval stronghold complex from Poznań (J. Koszałka). Neolithic and Bronze Age finds of a "new" type of hulled wheat, together with a description of the morphological characters of this taxon, are discussed by A. Bieniek.

Three papers deal with the indirect impact of past human activities on the modern flora. Observations carried out on the present-day flora of some barrows and a tumulus in the Małopolska Upland, south Poland, have shown that these particular places represent favourable habitats for the survival of several interesting xero-thermic grassland and meadow species (A. Cwener; K. Towpasz, M. Kotańska). Z. Celka' paper discusses the modern distribution of several plant species that represent relicts of former cultivation, dating back to recent centuries or even to prehistorie times.

Taking into account the fact that the Scandinavian stratigraphic scheme for the Holocene, with its zonę boundaries defined in radio-carbon years, is often used in archaeological and archaeobotanical publications, A. Walanus and D. Nalepka have proposed a correct re-calibration of 14C dates to calendar years.

The editors would like to thank Dr. David E. Robinson for revi-sion of the English texts. Publication of this volume was supported financially by the W. Szafer Foundation of Polish Botany and Professor K. Jażdżewski Foundation for Archaeological Investigations.
 Krystyna Wasylikowa, Maria Lityńska-Zając, Aldona Bieniek

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